Contacts
WASHINGTON

Sailesh Tiwari
1818 H Street, NW
Washington DC 20433
stiwari@worldbank.org

Maura Leary
1818 H Street, NW
Washington DC 20433
mleary@worldbank.org

Resources: Glossary
Visualize Inequality Glossary

This page provides a description of the key concepts and underlying methodology of the work on Human Opportunity Index presented in this dashboard.

Equality of Opportunities Principle All individuals, regardless of their characteristics (circumstances), should have the same chance to access to opportunities.
Human Opportunity Index (HOI)

The HOI is a measure of the coverage rate of an opportunity, discounted by inequality in its distribution across circumstances groups.

HOI = C(1-D)

Opportunity Access to a good or service, which society accepts should be universal.
Circumstance Individual, household, geographic characteristics outside individual’s control (e.g. gender, parental education, wealth, geographic location) that society agrees should not determine access to opportunities. Ideally, circumstances are characteristics that an individual is “born into” and therefore not easily changeable by policy action.
Circumstance group A circumstance group is a set of individual with the same set of circumstances. For example: all those males, with non-educated parents and living in urban areas.
Coverage (C) It is the average probability of access to the opportunity in the population.
Inequality Index (D)

It is the share of the total number of opportunities that needs to be reallocated to ensure equality of opportunity.

Inequality Index

Annual change in the Human Opportunity Index It is the difference in the Human Opportunity Index (HOI) between the two periods divided by number of years between the two periods.
Scale effect It is a component of the annual change, which represents the variation in the HOI due to a proportional change in the coverage rate of all circumstance groups.
Composition effect It is a component of the annual change, which represents the variation in the HOI due to a change in the distribution of the population across circumstance groups.
Equalization effect It is a component of the annual change, which represents the variation in the HOI due to an increase in the probability of access to opportunities