The Public Sector Group anchor unit (PRMPS) provides Bank
task teams with guidance to undertake Stakeholder Analysis
in one of two ways.
For the three pilots, the Bank used the services
of an external consulting firm – the Sentia Group to
conduct stakeholder analysis using their proprietary software
and methods established over a twenty-year practice. Using
game theory, decision theory, spatial bargaining and risk
management models, Sentia’s “Expected Utility
Stakeholder Model” predicts outcomes, compares alternatives,
and employs simulations of round by round negotiations to
forecast stakeholder movement. Sentia collects stakeholder
data through only expert interviews in order to assign values
on: influence, position, importance of issue to the stakeholders,
and then uses that data in the analysis.
Sentia uses a proprietary software that organizes and analyzes
stakeholder attributes through several stages and representations.
The first is a policy continuum that outlines the different
levels of reform and with a value attached to each level
on a scale from 0 to 100. The second is a graph of the stakeholders
effective power plotted against their position on the issue.
The third stage uses a computerized simulation technique
to predict movement of stakeholders over the course of rounds
of negotiations. The results are then presented in a report
to the task team for discussion and as a basis for strategy
While Sentia clearly has the lead in working
with Bank teams to do stakeholder analysis, there are other
capabilities and task teams are reminded to abide by the
Bank’s guidelines in their consultant/consulting
firm selection process.
PRMPS has synthesized various stakeholder analytical models
to create a simplified version for in-house use by Bank
staff. The version clarifies and renders transparent the
formula used to determine stakeholder effective power,
replaces outcome prediction with scenario-building as a
tool for task team strategic discussion and decision-making,
and offers improved and simplified visual grids and matrices
to map stakeholder power and salience on reform proposals.
By integrating best practice in generic SA models with
Bank concerns, norms, and practice, this model provides
a more realistic and user-friendly tool for Bank staff.
Moreover, the underlying algorithms are fully transparent
foundation and the model provides room to exploit Bank
task team knowledge on policy subject matter and local
country knowledge. (Previous pilots indicated these as
weak points of using external consultants.)
The in-house model assumes data collection
can be pursued by either interviewing experts or the stakeholders,
depending on country circumstances. This model is Excel-based
and uses simple charts and grids to manage the information
identifying and profiling stakeholders. The policy continuum
is flexible and can include not only the progressive levels
of reform but also a decision tree that illuminates tradeoffs
and reservation prices. An additional matrix – the ‘Influence-Salience’ matrix – is
provided as an essential tool for the scenario-building exercises
that task teams are expected to conduct as an integral part
of the analysis and strategy development. This organization
of the data to facilitate scenario-construction is a critical
difference from predictive models of Stakeholder Analysis.